Jumat, 25 Desember 2009

Only 25% of Indonesia Coral Reef Identified in Good Condition

Coral reef is a part of ecosystem which is very interconnected with the coastal area life, for example as place to lay eggs of various fishes and as coastal protection from erosion. But nowadays its existence threatened progressively, which coral reef disappear in speed of 5.4% in each year during 30 year lately. Climate change viewed as a biggest threat for coral reef. Especial threat of climate, like going up of sea surface temperature and acidity level of the sea water, and growing larger by dissimilar threat inclusive of fishing redundantly, pollution and foreign species. Substance use generating abundant emission by human being cause the happening of global warming and growing hard of coral reef condition. In the 2008th, report by Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network in Poznan, Polandia expressed that loss world have almost 20% of its coral reef was effect of carbondioxyde discarded. But coral reef have the higher opportunity to live on when the climate change happened, if other pressure factor which related to activity of human being minimized.

As one of biggest archipelagic country in world, Indonesia is also known as one of world sea variety involve center with its coral reef. But unhappily, in this time Indonesia coral reef threatened to destroy cause of kinds matters, either due natural factor like climate change and also effect of the human being act like ignorance and greed in exploiting natural resources for the shake of getting advantage without thinking natural preservation. The example of the activity which can destroy the coral reef are destructive fishing (DF) in the form of fishing activity by trawl which its impact is damage the under sea life, use bomb to catch fish, use cyanide which generally for catching the decorative fish, lobster and napoleon, and also intake coral reef to be commercialized or made construction material.

Indonesia had wide totalize of coral reef about 51.000 Km2 or about 18% of total world coral reef and 65% totalize (about 75.000 Km2) in coral triangle (world reef triangle), covering Indonesia, Philippine, Malaysia, Timor Leste, Papua Nugini and Salomon Archipelago. This coral reef triangle also referred as "Amazon of the Seas" because becoming epicenter of sea life owning various of sea biota type. Coral reef in this area includes 53% of the world coral reef and own more than 600 reef specieses dwelt about 3.000 fish specieses. More than 120 million people very hinging their life from coral reef in this area. This matter become the very strong reason to do the conservation effort of coral reef in that area.

Based on a ecology study led by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) with entangling all coral reef experts and world fish at the 2002th, Raja Ampat archipelago in West Papua-Indonesia is the archipelago with the amount of highest coral reef types in world, that are about 537 types of reef and 1074 fish types. Sum up the reef type is 75% reef type found in world. But, in this time about 22% of coral reef in East of Indonesia region and Papua Nugini destroyed. This number is smaller than the damage in West of Indonesia region which equal to 71%. Even, the condition of coral reef at 2009th is worse than World Forest. Based on LIPI research at 2009th, effect of various factors, the condition of coral reef in Indonesia are 30% in damage condition and 40% in middle condition, whereas only 25% in good condition and its remain are in very good condition.

Damage of coral reef surely affect at downhill its benefit, especially for the human. Besides representing maritime tourism asset, also function as the natural barrier for coastal from the wave attack, even as source of food and medicines. For that, must have been done the national effort to discontinue the fast of its damage. Efforts which have been done in Indonesia are with ICRI (the International Coral Reef Initiative) cymbal the International Year of the Reef (IYOR) 2008th, that is celebration a yearlong for inspirating, to develop, and entangling everyone in coral reef conservation. During one year, governmental, social institution, university, local society, all coral reef fans and all business expected can develop and or join in activity promoting coral reef conservation which more integrated. 2008th also cymbal as Visit of Indonesia Year 2008. Reef Check Indonesia does the initiative to develop www.goblue.or.id, a portal which develop together as effort to develop the public awareness in comprehending coral reef conservation issues and its related ecosystem, and also place for promoting the environmental friendly tourism in Indonesia. Others, The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC) have developed the newest science model to determine accurately the location of coral reef which is "in a problem" and best location for its protection for Indonesia ocean area. Hopefully all efforts which have been done can lessen the degradation of coral reef which will be wide and big progressively if let, and its consequence also will affect ecologically and also economic for Indonesia self.

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