Kamis, 03 Desember 2009

Minimizing Air Pollution in The Surabaya Center with Green Open Space




Green Open Space represents the type of farm allotment which must be provided in space settlement to create the continueing of town development. This is such as those which expressed in Budiharjo, 2001 that in going concern town development shall use the principle seven E, that is Environment, Employment or Economy, Engagement, Equity, Energy Conservation, Ethic, and Esthetic. Pursuant to the statement, Green Open Space represents the very having an effect on aspect for environmental continueing, where one of Green Open Space function from ecological facet is as supplier of oxygen (O2) very required for the respiration of mortal and reductor of Dioxide Carbon (CO2) becoming one of global warm-up cause.

Indonesia have UU No. 26 / 2007 about Space Settlement which affirmed, that minimizing Green Open Space amount is 30% from wide of town with the detail 20% for the public Green Open Space and the rest 10% for the privat Green Open Space. Town Surabaya which broadness 326.366.768 ha, ideally require the Green Open Space for the width of 6.527.353 ha. But at 2007, Green Open Space in Surabaya only 2.937.309 ha or 9% from regional wide. Though emission CO (carbon monoxide) what in fact can be reduced by Green Open Space, at global level air contamination in the reality contribute the biggest prosentase that is 55,7%, which then followed by hydrocarbon 13,1%. (Miller, 1979) Surabaya Center as economic center of commercial sector and service of town Surabaya represent the region owning high farm use intensity. Height of farm Requirement result Green Open Space as threatened environment quality indicator its existence. Regional broadly 1.479,18 Ha, availability of Green Open Space town in Surabaya Center at this time only for the width of 20,77 ha or about 0,014% just the than wide of entirety region. With the resident amount reach 354.484 peoples, ready hence Green Open Space in Surabaya Center only 0,59 m2 to every people. This condition is far from ideal requirement of Green Open Space in master plan of Town of Surabaya at 2000th, that is 10,03 m² every people.

For That, the government of Town Surabaya non-stopped to cope to add the Green Open Space amount. But with all limitation and constraints, Governmental of Town Surabaya only able to add the Green Open Space 8 hectares every year. Thats mean, to fulfill the ideal requirement Surabaya need for 448 years. That is not the inclusive of privat green open space which most farm in Surabaya represent the society property, individual good and also private sector block. Hit ready of privat Green Open Space in Surabaya, fact that happened in field is its difficult strive the Green Open Space addition at ready farm privat so that its not yet optimal. This matter because of land in the form of block of private sector in Surabaya Center which is non developer property cannot fulfill the obligation provide the Green Open Space 60:40 like housing order. While ready of Green Open Space in countrified burdened with the farm limitation, ready so that its have to communally. Other the things of with the farm privat own the developer. A lot of developer providing garden as one of its housing facility because realizing that Green Open Space become the demand every people, so that its price sell is increase.

At metropolis in Indonesia, Green Open Space residing in middle downwards residential still minim, most Green Open Space reside in the residential middle-weight to for. principally, green open space requirement do not know the economic social class level. But in its implementation, oftentimes people residing in solid residential in town less pay attention to the important function of Green Open Space. One of very influencing factor of this opinion is dwelling requirement will be cheap and reside in close to place of effort. For the reason they ready to omit to mill around with minimum Green Open Space. Its awareness for middle citizen is downwards defeated by requirement of above. The minim of Green Open Space in solid residential is not always become the reason for towny to always to blame its government. Personal awareness will determine, its meaning as narrow as any farm owned can be laboured to become the Green Open Space. One of solid area in Surabaya is Surabaya Center.

Surabaya Center this represent the downtown region which its farm allotment pursuant to RDTRK of Surabaya Town for 2003 - 2013 is as commerce center, white colars, and business. Farm allotment / regional space of Surabaya Center is as center of municipal administration of Surabaya where owning pattern of traffic current which solid enough. As for other allotment like white colars, residential like kampong / housing, commerce, and other public facility. unbalancing proportion of farm use for the Green Open Space with the other activity function influence the environment quality supporting life in itself town. This matter because of lack of function owned by the Green Open Space covering ecological function, economic, social, and esthetics. One effect of ecological function lack of Green Open Space as reductors of Carbon Dioxide is temperature heat under the sun, and surely in town have high density, physical goodness and also its activity. Hot condition tend to to make the the urban community quickly experience of depression because of lack of Carbon Dioxide which implied in the urban air.

Health profile of DKI Jakarta at 2004 indicating that about 46% related respiration trouble disease with the air contamination (ISPA 43%, iritasi eye 1,7% and asthma 1,4%), and about 32% related possibility death with the air contamination (heart sickness and lungs 28,3% and pneumonia 3,7%). At the same year in Yogyakarta (Profile of Health Yogyakarta 2004), as much 32% related disease of respiration trouble with the air contamination (ISPA 22%, others trouble respiration, 7,7%, and asthma 2,2%).

While effect of continuous heatwave can cause incidence of tropical disease like malaria and fever. Patient of husk Cancer also mount. And in the reality, condition of health of citizen Surabaya of related to air condition in this time is not far differ from the Jakarta and Yogyakarta. Surabaya, the second biggest town after Jakarta in the reality own the level of air pollution exceeding sill of boundary WHO. Result of measurement of air quality by BTKL (at the 2000) showing mean of Carbon Monoxide rate in air is 2,14 ppm of up to 12,62 ppm, though according to standard of WHO at the 1976, maximum condition boundary permitted for the air pollution by dirt is 0,02 mg/m3. This matter is caused by a very high motor vehicle movement level, one of them is in Surabaya Center representing of economic activities centre in Surabaya. From result of field perception done by Prasasti (2006), most of all roads that found on Surabaya Center, represent the high density of vehicles. This intensity vehicles is fluctuation refering to pattern of people activity because at this band represent the road becoming especial alternative remember of its farm allotment.

The condition of Lead Pollution in Surabaya is on phase feeling concerned, this indication have been detected from result of study from Vera Hakim at Indonesia University 1998, mentioning in children blood in Surabaya accumulate the mean Lead 68 mycrogram/littres. Lead Rate 68 mycrogram/littres can cause the child more and more aggresive, less concentration, even cause the cancer. This matter is anticipated to improve the case of bronchy above infection (ISPA) Children in this Surabaya matter and is proven from Duty Environment of Surabaya Town year 2000.

Pursuant to data from puskesmas in region Surabaya laid open from all disease which are diagnosed, there are 46,31 % patient ISPA at baby old age 0-28 day, 47,39 % at baby old age 28 day-1 year, and 68,12 % suffered by a child old age 1-4 year. While according to result of Bapedal Jatim study in the year 2001, pursuant to inspection result to 85 people by Hall of Laboratory of Health Surabaya (BLKS) show the blood of child in public road and polantas (traffic police) contain the lead with the rate which vary between 216,50 until 687,50 mycrogram/littres. This indication prove that environmental contamination have reached the critical point and generate the very heavy impact at health of human being especially five years old child (balita). A lot of balita were infected lead because liking to enter everything into its mouth and can swallow the lead in dirt which patch on-hand, others object or toy around his. Child can swallow 200 mg of lead every day especially which live in the town and near by solid roadway.

The handling of air quality very needed to overcome the pollution of town air. Insulator installation/barrier aim to for the preventing of particulat transmission from source to receiver. Election of substance barier for the area of residential have to pay attention to the matters, among other things location, size measure freshment, safety, strength and others. Because that matter can influence the psychology and the dweller of residential health.

Natural barrier usually in the form of tree/crop having the nature of reducing air pollution. Crop not only taken by its benefit from physical result produce part of its garden. Crop benefit also can be in the form of the crop role in creating freshment, forming esthetics, and reduce the pollution. Role progressively mean especially at urban ecosystem. A lot of urban society activities are using energy in the form of fossil fuel, generating side effects in the form of pollution. Pollution can be in the form of the gas emission or in the form of particulat. One way of overcome the contamination is gardening concept.

Crop represent the complete especial component. Imbibition crop able to some type polutan effectively, so that can clean the atmosphere from pollution. But that way, crop effectiveness in permeating polutan will less with the increase of concentration polutan. And the last effect is annoying of crop function in environment. Thereby, crop resilience to level polutan become the important factor in election of type of reductor particulat crop on the air.

Crop as complete element require to be selected and placed by pursuant to functional consideration of esthetics. Functional aspect of crop for example crop ability in repairing environmental condition through its ability permeate the polutan, so that created by a balmy atmosphere in physical. Aesthetic aspect is balmy atmosphere visually showed by appearance, type, and crop composition. Five birch that are capable to lessen the air pollution about 47 - 69%. Like mahony, canary, salam, anting-anting, felicium. Clump crop which is good to lessening air pollution for example puring, soka, nusa indah, and shoe flower.

See its important of Green Open Space to lessen the global warming effect in Surabaya, hence its proportion addition require to be done, not only provided public farm, but also privat farm. From Surabaya society, expecting emboldening of reboisation in the form of Gerakan Sejuta Pohon (GSP) to overcome the height of ambient temperature and air pollution. Beside that, expected plantedly of the tree can lessen the floods which during the time knock over the Surabaya.

Natural by farm limitation problems of Surabaya, where activity and resident residence have to be fullfiled, so also with the Green Open Space can be handled with the policy from government of Surabaya town, one of them is by making a chance for sekunder sector activity and tertiary to build the high building, which its condition have to provide green open space in part of their farm, like roof garden, garden at side of parking a lot, and also others form.

Various communications activity, information and education (KIE) have been executed inwroughtly in the effort environmental settlement and keep cleaning of Surabaya Town. Also cooperation by PT. Unilever Indonesia carried outly of race "Surabaya Green and Clean". But, without awareness, participate and full of support from the efforts society will not have continuation.

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