Jumat, 04 Desember 2009

Mansions, Lessening or Growing Dirty?

Slums represent one of urban problem which fenomenal. Existence of activities centre in a town able to inhale the urbanization current from marginal area of town to look for the more competent subsistence. At metropolis, a lot of slums popping out especially at public space which not yet been exploited, like gallery of mine bridge, side of river, and other empty farms. Existence of this condition generate the dirty impression at the very solid town.

Environmental growth of settlement in urban area is not be fast quit of its growth rate of urban resident, either due growth factor of itself townee and also urbanization factor. Negative impact of urbanization taken place during the time more because of uneven opportunity to earn life in countryside area and urban, so that peep out the existence of town fascination assumed able to give the better future for countryside society or outside town, whereas background of capacities and ability of all mygran are very marginal (Kirmanto, 2001).

Government as one of the parties which responsible this slums area have tried various effort to make their environment of resettlement become competent dwell. Matter which require to be done by performing a town renewable, whereabout one of governmental program is simple mansions development of cheap rent alternatively residence for impecunious faction society taking possession of the slums.

Slums represent the problem of arising out because of urbanization booming from incoming boundary area to the activities centre and add the impecunious society urban population. the resident rapidly growth which is not accompanied with the farm availability will for resettlement, hence happen the illegal occupancies of farm which is not exploited to become the slums.
From various perception of concerning existing slums, inferential that marking from slums are :
1. Public facility which its condition less or is not adequate
2. Condition of dwelling house and settlement and also its spaces use mirror its dweller is indigent or impecunious
3. Existence level of frequency and high volume density in using space in slum so that mirror the existence of confused planology and powerless economic of its dweller
4. Slum represent a set of community which live separately with the boundary of clear social and culture, that is existed as :
a. A single community, residing in public property, and in consequence can be classified as wild dwelling.
b. Set of single community representing the part of a RT/RW.
c. A set of single community existed as a RT/RW/even existed as a chief of village, and non wild dwelling
5. Slum dweller social and economicly is not homogeneous. Its citizen have various living and income, so also their origin. In slum society is also recognized the existence of social veneering by virtue of economic ability those who are the different each other.
6. Mostly slum dweller is those who work in informal sector/having additional living in informal sector.

In slum problem attitude in urban, governmental to hence cope by repairing town management through rejuvenation. Town management is an effort to execute the town arrangement so that more regular and in control better for realizing better town life and have continuation, one of them is that is through town renewable. Town renewable is doneto repair a condition of a town which have saturated. Initially renewable of town area represent the response to social and economic change pressure causing at development of town physical (Chapin, 1965 in Djarot Purbadi, 1996)

Town Rejuvenation with the Mansions
Town Rejuvenation is one of accommodating town growth way that is strive the planned regeneration at area developed which is a period to passing cycling program, for example redevelopment program, rehabilitation, and conservation. Inpres No. 5 at 1990th have placed the soul and base of town rejuvenation (Johan Silas, 1996):
1. Private sector may rejuvenate the goverment land populating for the sake of commercial. Existing dweller have to be re-accomodated in the same place at new system as condition which is not dissociated
2. Relocation defrayal return the citizen is conducted by investor by taking old price difference with new price
3. The Inpres also "confessing" by right of citizen to stay in the same place without having to question whether yes or not the formal rights for farm taken possession (but the Inpres only valid for 2 projects, that are in Pulo Gadung, jakarta and Pekunden, Semarang.

One of alternative solution given by Indonesia government in the effort to town rejuvenation is through the simple rent mansions levying to fulfill requirement of society for competent and draw near they whose have middle-low income to the center of all day long their activities. Development mansions with the high building intensity, expected can push the farm exploiting and ready public facilities and utilities which more effective and efficient.

UU No.16 at 1985th about mansions mention that mansions is building of storey building which builded in a divisible environment in parts of which structured functionally in horizontal direction and also vertical and represent set of which is each can be owned and used separately, especially for the place of dwelling, provided with the common shares, common object, and common ground. Mansions development in urban area based on concept of sustainable development, which placing human being as development center. In its execution, it is using principle of arrange the good governance management and arrange the good corporate governance.

The basic principal of mansions development includes:
1. Integrity: mansions development executed by principle of area integrity, sector, between user, and integrity with the urban system
2. Efficiency and Effectiveness: exploiting available resource in an optimal fashion, through improvement of land use intensity and other resource
3. Straightening of Law: realizing the rule of law in living for all, and also respect the wisdom values which live in the middle of society
4. Balance and Sustainability: bothering balance of ecosystem and existing resource continuity
5. Participation: pushing governmental partner and cooperation with the bussiness and society to participate in planning process, development, controlled, operation and conservancy, and also mansions management
6. Equivalence: guaranting the existence of opportunity equivalence for society whose middle-low income to can dwelling the competent mansions for improving their prosperity
7. Transparency and Acountability: creating mutual belief between government, bussiness and society passing through ready of adequate information, and also responsibiliting of development performance to all.

But, mansions that representing solution of settlement limitation land for poor society or urban in the reality is not full zero in on. In the fact, it indicates that which live in the mansions is faction "able to", though the target truthfully is under class society.

Like the case which found in Jakarta, where as state's capital, Jakarta become the very strong magnet for marginal society to flip up over there. When mansions have been made available, non faction of under taking possession, but faction able to. Not rarely that pawn broker compile the have changed hands to second hand, third and here in after more able to. Mansions which initially for the society of have low income have been sold so that can be said that nowadays the mansions have fallen wide of its mark. Others, rent price which high relatively is minimizing possibility for poor society to enjoy the facility. Hence so that rent price the mansions can be reached by target, without lessening benefit ground, safety, balance, compatibility mansions with the building arrange and town environment is needed standard of mansions planning as its development base, that for example as follows:
1. Building Density
  • In arranging building density (intensitas) is needed a correct comparison covers wide of allotment land, building density, Koefisien Dasar Bangunan (KDB) and Koefisien Lantai Bangunan (KLB)
  • Koefisien Dasar Bangunan (KDB) is comparison of among wide of building base broadly land/plot of land, do not exceed from 0.4
  • Koefisien Lantai Bangunan (KLB) is comparison of among wide floor the building broadly ground, not less than 1,5
  • Koefisien Bangunan (KB) is comparison of part of along with broadly building, not less than 0,2
2. Location
Mansions is builded in location which is appropriated with plan of planology, plan to arrange the building and environment, reached by a public transportation service, and also by considering compatibility with its environmentally
3. Arrange the Situation
Arrange the situation of mansions must to consider the building integrity, environmental, area and space, and also by paying attention to benefit factors, safety, balance and compatibility
4. Building Apart and Height
Building apart and height determined by pursuant to fire danger conditions, illumination and air transfer naturally, pleasant, and also building density according to planology
5. Type of Mansions Function
Function Type destine of mansions is to dwelling and enabled in one mansions/mansions area have the combination type of dwelling function and effort
6. Set of Mansions Wide
Wide set of mansions minimum 21th m2, with the especial function as bedroom/multipurpose room and provided with the bathroom and kitchen
7. Mansions Equipment
Mansions must to be equiped with facilities and utilities which supporting prosperity, fluency and dweller amenity in running everyday activity
8. Vertical Transportation
The lower rise mansions with the amount dance maximum 6th floor, using doorstep as vertical transportation. The high rise mansions with the amount dance more than 6th floor, using lift as vertical transportation.

So, to be can degrading the mansions rent, mansions development also apply the technology of construction material and construction fulfilling minimum service standard from construction security, health, and pleasant, which based on potency of local wisdom and resource. Exploiting of local wisdom and resource potencies is expected can lessen the social charges that happened at the preparation, development execution, and also operating expenses and mansions conservancy

Dirty Newly
At conservancy facet representing of mansions solutif function to lessen dirty also earn uncared. In field, most mansions are very minim at conservancy facet, like building colour fade and building material which is not looked after again. Do not look after of the building cause dirty newly in mansions environment. Mansions is true pushing the efficiency of land use in town and surely the town which as big as Jakarta where land price is excelsior, but if seen by in reality of ability and awareness of dweller or owner to look after his building is very far from expectation
As the picture, to date in Jakarta have been gone the round of some mansions as in Jakarta Center there are Petamburan mansions (600 unit), Bendungan Hilir mansions (614 unit), Karet Tengsin mansions (160 unit}, Tanah Tinggi mansions (428 unit) and Jatibunder mansions (60 unit). Although the growth of mansions is start glorious, but this time in Jakarta there is only two developers in the form of public company (although in fact have perda that pushing private sector to develop the simple mansions) which developing simple mansions massly. Perumnas to date have managed about 8000 unit simple mansions and PD Sarana Jaya manage do not less than 3000 unit simple mansions (Kompas, March 26th at 2002th).

Mansions which is from the beginning builded very natty arranged, practically nowadays have changed to be dirty environmental. In some mansions is seen the pond irrigate and garbage. Conservancy fare which ought to be paid by owner mansions (mostly are middle-under society faction) unable to be paid by them because they still have to think the everyday requirement. Even to pay the rent sometimes they must double paid. if true the rent mansions is alternatively housing trouble-shooting for poor society faction so some considerations are the government must really to look for the solution especially about conservancy problem.

For that, for the shake of conservancy executing is needed by a fund support from government, because local government also have obligation in conservancy and building observation. So that the colour change of building or repair of facade building are represented from its own local government. This matter as according to UU No.16 at 1985th about mansions in chapter VIII section 20th article 1 about the observation, mentioned that observation to this rules and regulations execution is done by Government.

In this case, in the middle of governmental fund limitation and the weak of purchasing power of citizen marginal, technically single house quality type RS/RSS or RI (core house) lessened. So that, the wisdom which taken is citizen can get the good environmental house in advance, while its quality is still be disregarded, so that the sell price can reached by marginal society. But, the same thing at the simple mansions cannot be done. Such as those which have been specified at PPRI No. 4 at 1988th about mansions, in second chapter III shares the technical conditions of mansions development, the second paragraph section 12th sounds the mansions must be planned and builded with the structure, component, and use of construction material which fulfilling construction conditions as according to its standard. If that matter is forced (technical quality reduction), hence can cause fatal and that matter is impossible to conducted by all simple mansions designers. As a result, sell price of simple mansions is be difficult to depressed as does at RS/RSS. Though, development expense for an unit simple mansions can reach among three and four times from the development expense for an unit RS/RSS with the same broadly. Finally, the under class society faction is so difficult to reach the simple mansions. So that no wonder if dweller mansions which is a lot of met are able to society, even have more than one cars.

The fund problem which during the time become a constraint of mansions levying and leap the rent price for each unit mansions, actually can be handled by doing policy of urban renewal, land consolidation, and crossed subsidy system. At its concept, urban renewal is conducted by a government to get the land for mansions levying in a dirty urban area which later smoothed down by on approval of its citizen. All land owners are promised to get the priority for simple dwelling mansions that builded at their land.

But, of course do not all that simple mansions units are sold to old citizen, because above that areal can be builded more dwelling than old dwelling which exist in that area. For example for the dwelling which have strategic location, can be sold to all good enthusiasts not only to old citizen but also new citizen, according to commercial price in marketing. In this case, of course the government get the profit and it's which must be weared to subsidize some of simple mansions development.

For the concept of land consolidation, governmental and also private sector can do cooperation with the land citizen owner which his area will be builded. Developer, from private sector and also governmental, doing the land and old building price calculation of citizen owned at the somewhere. Then it’s reckoned with the high rise building, as ruko and also simple mansions, which be stayed by the old citizen.

While at the crossed subsidy system is have been done by Perumnas in that BUMN area at Cengkareng, West Jakarta. In that area, initially Perumnas build some simple mansions blocks which nowadays are rented to marginal of Jakarta citizen. Then because of assessed of that area is strategic enough, which its location at the roadside of Prof Sedyatmo turnpike (airport turnpike) and outside circular turnpike Jakarta, hence some of that areal is sold to private sector developer.

At 2004th, a number of private sector developers have builded the ruko and house in the ex Perumnas’s property area, and their plan is also start to develop a number of apartment block for the middle-weight which is sold at the commercial price as according to marketing price. Perhaps Perumnas get the profit from the cooperation with the private sector, so that applicable to subsidize the simple mansions development hereinafter in the area.

The concepts is not easy to done without existence of approach to society. Cause, a lot of them are still believeless in the governmental wisdom. It’s effect of the hoisterous of corruption, colusion and nepotism (KKN) at a period of Orde Baru when concept of urban renewal introduced. In consequence, key to all officials functionary is transparency so that citizen can trust if they do not be harmed, but contrary is profited.

With the really mansions levying which can function as accomplishment of residence requirement for marginal, environmental quality repair, and for the minimizing of its dweller transportation expense, hence dirty problem of urban that is effect of existence of slum and squatter will be able to handled. Support from government, private sector, and society are very needed to attainment of program efficacy, that include the control activity, defrayal, and also conservancy.

Thereby, it can be conclused that town rejuvenation represent a forming of urban management, where representing one of way to accommodate the town growth that is strive the planned regeneration at area developed which is passing the cycling program, for example redevelopment program, rehabilitation, and conservation. One of related governmental program by Jakarta rejuvenation which is fulled by resident is mansions levying. But, still a lot of things which out of the target from mansions target in fact, both of object target and also environmental quality repair target. All that do not get out of the lack of conservancy and controlled from government

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