Kamis, 03 Desember 2009

Algae as Alternative Raw Material of Biodiesel



Rate CO2 on the air normal in number very useful once to protect the life under the sun, but abundant in number very endangering. Content CO2 on the air in this time assumed to become the cause of glasshouse effect (50%) generating the make-up of temperature (global warming). Hence various effort have been done by a lot of party to depress the emission level assumed have exceeded tolerance. If relate at tables 1 transportation activity become the component which is at most generating emission CO2. This matter of course resulted from the rest of imperfect fuel combustion.

Table 1
Cause Factors of Emission CO2
No. Source of Pollution Percentage Yearly Emission (%)
1. Fuel stasionery toasting 16,9
2. Industry 15,3
3. Transportation 54,5
4. Agricultural waste toasting 7,3
5. Dumping garbage 4,2
6. Others 1,8
Total 100
Source : Miller 1979 (http://sim.nilim.go.jp/GE/SEMI6/Paper/01-ARP.doc)

Energy which [is] in this time used as [by] fuel kendaraan [is] energy non-renewable, like diesel fuel, gasoline, and others. Availibility of the fossil fuel nowadays start to attenuate, so that its price even also progressively leap. For that, needed by a tactical step to look for the fuel alternative coming from new raw material. In this case, Indonesia have managed the new source energy for the alternative of source energy substitution which do not newly, for example wind, ebb, wave energy, energy undertow go out to the sea, sunshine energy, fuel from castor oil, and nowadays medium check the algae oil for the making of biodiesel.


Algae
Evaluated biologically, algae represent the plant group which have chlorophyll to consisted of one or a lot of cell and in form of colony. In algae consisted in organic substances like polysacarida, hormone, vitamin, mineral as well as compound bioactive. Algae is one of organism which can grow at spanning wide condition on the surface of earth. Algae is usually found at damp place or object which is often incured by water and a lot of life at environment have water on the surface of earth. Algae can life almost in all place owning enough sunshine, irrigate and dioxide carbon.
So far, algae exploiting in Indonesia is as permanent upon which food industry (like Griffithsia, Ulva, Enteromorpna, Gracilaria, Euchema, and Kappaphycus), cosmetic, pharmacy (like Laminariales or Kelp and Sargassum Muticum), heavy adsorben metal (like Sargassum, Chlorela/Nannochloropsis), source of compound bioactive (like Osmundaria, Hypnea, and Gelidium), producer of bioetanol and biodiesel, organic manure, and others.

Biodiesel
Biodiesel own various advantage, that is :
1.because coming from biomass hence do not cause the CO2 emission
2.Its emission is lower than diesel petroleum
3.tools which are needing biodiesel have been made available
4.owning low poisoned level and can decay because bacterium
5.owning a lot of combustion which more complette than gasoline

While problem biodiesel are :
1.increase product the emission Nox, relative for the petroleum.
2.to less output power from diesel engine than petroleum usage, although entirely only about 2%.
3.Biodiesel production yield the glycerine by product and clean the liquid waste
4.its price is more expensive than diesel petroleum
5.stock return produce the biomass to make the biodiesel obviated from other important usage

Biodiesel in fact can be made by some oilfield organic, inclusive of in it is oil of restaurant garbage, fat of animal and bulk oil. Ready of garbage oil very finite, even though this source is popular for the scale of small (selfsupporting producer). Commercial producer of larger ones often use the bulk oil. But, biodiesel coming from bulk oil differentiated with the seed for the food and improve the emulation from bulk of oil producer, and also make the biodiesel growing costly.

Algae go out to sea as Producer of Bioetanol and Biodiesel
In journal entitle Biodiesel: Algaee as a Renewable Source for Liquid Fuel mentioned that algae potency go out to sea as producer of bioetanol and biodiesel still in phase research into circumstantial. Nevertheless, this potency is very promising in the last period. Nations go forward like United States, Japan and Canadian target to start the year 2025 fuel involve the (biofuel) can be produced from propagate quickly micro algae which is grow the territorial water bargain/briny. More advantage which can be obtained is not require the tractor as in land, without seed planting, CO2 yielded can be exploited upon which burn and continuous crop which is because of time plant the algae only one week.

In the journal also mentioned that Algae used in production biodiesel usually green algae have single cell which live in territorial water. This Algae type is eucariotic photosynthetic which characteristic by level of growth and high population density. At good condition, green algae can duplicate its biomass less than 24 clock. Sometime green algae can contain the lipid giant with the frequency more than 50%. Ideal high density biomass for the agriculture of intensive and possible become the perfect source to produce the biodiesel.

Tables 2
Oil Content of Some Algae Species
Species Oil Content (% based on dry weight)
Chlorella sp. 28 - 32
Nitzschia sp. 45 - 47
Nannochloropsis sp. 31 - 68
Schizochytrium sp. 50 - 77
Source : Christi, 2007

Biodiesel from algae almost like by biodiesel produced from oil producer plant (apart the fence, oil palm, etc.) cause of all biodiesel produced to use the triglycerides (referred as ordinary fat) from vegetation oil/algae.
Algae produce a lot of polyunsaturates, where obstetrical excelsior sour fat of polyunsaturates will lessen the yielded stability biodiesel. On the other hand, polyunsaturates own the compared to lower liquid dot of monounsaturates so that biodiesel algae will be well at cold weather compared to other type bio-feedstock. Known that insuffiency biodiesel is performance obsolence at cool temperature so that biodiesel algae possibly will can overcome this problem.
Pursuant to calculation, algae processing at farm for the width of 10 million acre (1 acre = 0.4646 ha) able to yield the biodiesel that can change entire/all requirement of diesel fuel in United States (oilgae.com, 26/12/2006). This farm only 1% from totalizeing farm which is now used for the farm of agriculture and grassland. Estimated algae able to yield the oil 200 times more amount compared to plant of oil producer (coconut oil palm, apart the fence, etc.) at its best condition. Others, a projection by algae expert in oilgae.com mention, each hektare algae able to conduct 40.000-120.000 litre biosolar of every year, 20-80 times fold yielded by a plant apart fence.
Constraint of propagate algae is from cultivation facet, algae need the special treatment so that obtaining expected result. Algae cultivation of open system (like pool opened and lake) to yield the biodiesel possibly will a few more difficult because algae require the very good treatment and easy to contaminated by dissimilar algae species and bacterium. But, in this time have succeeded developed some algae species which capable to be planted at farm opened and minimizing existence contamination of dissimilar species. For example spirulina (one of algae type) cultivation at one particular pool opened because spirulina have the character of aggresive and grow at environment by very high pH. Pool of propagation algae is usually referred as "circuit pool" what is made skin-deep so that algae remain to can get the sunshine. But so, way of this application can only at pool opened fairish minimize and cannot overcome a lot of problem of open system.
Other alternative of algae propagation way is by planting it at structure closed that called photobioreactor, where environmental condition will be more controlled. A photobioreactor is a bioreactor with several light source type, like sunshine, lamp fluorescent, led. Quasi-closed systems (a pool closed over with the transparent substance (greenhouse) in all shares) can be classified as photobioreactor. Photobioreactor also enable conducting increased concentration of dioxide carbon so that will quicken the algae growth. Though invesment expense of early and operating expenses from a photobioreactor will be higher compared to pool opened, however more efficiency and more amount yielding. This matter oil will make the return of expense of capital and operating expenses swiftly.

Various issues of algae cultivation for example :
1.biomass algae can be produced high in number extremely and yield the higher oil gratuity than other source.
2.algae oil limited by the market emulation.
3.Algae can be planted at farm marginal, freshwater or irrigate the sea.
4.innovate in algae production make it more productive than other consume source considering garbage.

Other constraint is in course of intake (extraction) oil from algae. This process still represent the costly process so that still have to be allowed for to use algae as source biodiesel. There are some famous method to take the oil from algae, for example: expeller/press, Hexane Solvent oil extraction, Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Osmotic Shock, and Ultrasonic Extraction. ( www.kamase.org)

Indonesia Potency to Develop Algae as Biodiesel
Indonesia represent the archipelagic country which is 2/3 from its region is ocean and have the longest coastline in world that is ± 80.791,42 Kilometers. In ocean there are all kinds of life being in the form of plant irrigate and also animal irrigate. One of mortal which grow and expand in sea is algae. There are about 5.000 types which live in territorial water Indonesia. (www.indobiofuel.com) Among others possible can yield a lot of biodiesel. Thereby, Indonesia ought to can look for the pre-eminent algae which can produce a lot of oil.
Soemarno, company owner fertilize the CV. Indmira in Pakem Sleman, have tried to propagate the green algae types of Microsystis sp., Scenedes-mus sp., Tetraselmis cui, Spirulina sp., and Chlorella sp. to inhale biosolar.
Its constraint is the way of algae refinery. But, that problem can be overcome by mixing compound with the high acidity (for example chloride acid) to algae. Last process the oil dissociation start done. Its result is waste 80% remain to can be exploited upon which fertilize.
Biodiesel made in Soemarno similar to biosolar sold in marketing. Its signs, then drawn near with the fire, oil from this algae is burnted. this Algae oil even earn weared direct for the vehicle.
Algae oil in the reality have been called by president of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, that is Minyak Indonesia Bersatu. In fact Minyak Indonesia Bersatu conceptedly is not new matter. Its principle is algae exploiting (grass the microscopic sea) to yield the vegetation oil. Vegetation oil from this algae which then of modification in order to become the oil synthetic which is similar to gasoline, diesel fuel, or avtur.
Minyak Indonesia Bersatu more economical 15 percentage of ordinary gasoline. Its emission rate only one tenth from fuel during the time. For the production cost of also much more economical, that is one fifth of from building ordinary refinery. When tested, President use opportunity intentionally to sit behind the smoke of bus that fuel the blue energy (word used to denote all types energy which can be innovated). Odourless smoke vehicle in the reality and do not make the pain eye.

Conclution
By theory yield the biodiesel from algae is true likeliest to replace our depending to petroleum of exploiting distance (and surely palm oil) for the fuel. Algae oil is not oblige that we open the new plantation farm. But in practice, still a lot of challenge to yield the biodiesel from algae that is hit the technological stability in big scale.
Laboratory scale is true have succeeded, but commercial and big scale still become the challenge. Its challenge are :
1.Identifying highest strain algae of its result to produce the vegetation oil
2.Identifying the way of most optimal for the propagating it.

While problems of produce the biodiesel from source biomass cover :
1.sources biomass have in stock limited.
2.owning use emulation, like food/produce the cosmetic.
3.resource of former biomass own the emulation with the dissimilar use, inclusive of also cultivation farm.
4.Limitation of supply and emulation cause the source biomass increase is costly

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